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But the pro-Keystone crowd also is ramping up the pressure. Business, energy and labor groups, along with a growing bipartisan coalition on Capitol Hill, strongly back the pipeline and continue to tout its job-creation potential and role in nudging the U.S. closer to North American energy independence.

The Canadian government also is making its voice heard.

On Wednesday, Canadian Minister of Natural Resources Joe Oliver will again visit Washington — his fourth visit in recent years — to push the White House to approve Keystone. Mr. Oliver will speak at the Center for Strategic and International Studies and will meet with administration and congressional leaders.

“Canada supports the Keystone XL project because it will enhance national security, create jobs and foster long-term economic prosperity for both of our countries,” Mr. Oliver said in a statement announcing his trip.