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That is why I believe the international community should consider establishing a specialized independent nuclear arbitration body under International Atomic Energy Agency or United Nations auspices that would draw together the best global specialists in problems of nuclear security, energy and non-proliferation.

This new body could be given the authority to pass rulings on suspected violations of international agreements and rules in nuclear activities. These rulings would be the basis for introducing sanctions against states in violation of accepted international norms.

Much has changed in the world since Albert Einstein and other leading scientists pointed to the dangers of nuclear fission in 1946, and the world survived several decades of nuclear-armed superpower confrontation during the Cold War.

Nursultan Nazarbayev is the president of the Republic of Kazakhstan.