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Mr. Morsi’s supporters had been staging sit-ins around Cairo’s Raba’a al Adawiya mosque and at al-Nahda Square near Cairo University since he was ousted.

Security forces moved in on the protest sites early Wednesday, apparently catching the protesters off guard. The smaller protest at al-Nahda Square was the first to be cleared.

The operation at the more densely crowded protest site near the mosque in Cairo’s eastern district of Nasr City produced a majority of the casualties.

At one point, protesters pushed an occupied armored police vehicle 50 feet off a bridge in Cairo. They then threw stones at the stunned and injured police officers who crawled out of the mangled vehicle, The Associated Press reported.

‘Cannot bear one drop of blood’

In his resignation letter to Mr. Mansour, interim Vice President Mohamed ElBaradei wrote that he “cannot bear the responsibility for one drop of blood.”

“It has become difficult for me to continue bearing responsibility for decisions that I do not agree with and whose consequences I fear,” he wrote.

A large number of the Muslim Brotherhood’s senior officials and members were arrested in a nationwide crackdown on the Islamists.

The interim government’s decision to impose a state of emergency effectively strengthens the military’s control over Egypt.

Mr. Kerry said the Obama administration is opposed to the state of emergency and called for it to be lifted as soon as possible.

In another move widely seen as a sign of the military’s creeping power, the interim government Tuesday appointed 25 provincial governors, 17 of whom are army generals and two from the police.

Mr. El-Haddad, the Muslim Brotherhood spokesman, said in a phone interview from Cairo that the gubernatorial appointments were a clear sign that Egypt has “returned to the Mubarak era.”

Hosni Mubarak’s 29-year grip on power in Egypt ended when he was forced to resign the presidency on Feb. 11, 2011, as part of the Arab Spring protest movement.

Mr. Morsi has been detained at a secret location since his ouster. On Monday, an Egyptian judge extended his detention by 15 days.

Muslim Brotherhood leader Mohamed al-Beltagy, whose 17-year-old daughter was among those killed Wednesday, warned on Al-Jazeera TV that Egypt was drifting toward a civil war similar to the one that has raged in Syria since March 2011. Mr. al-Beltagy was later detained.

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