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“We’ll become the slaves of Europe if we go into it,” said 43-year-old demonstrator Segei Antonovich. “Look at history: Only union with Russia can save Ukraine from catastrophe.”

Over the past week, Ukrainian officials have made some steps toward the opposition, with Mr. Yanukovych proposing an amnesty for demonstrators arrested in the police breakups of protests and suspending two senior officials under investigation for the violence

The opposition, however, is holding to stronger demands, including the resignation of the government and early elections for both president and parliament.

Mr. McCain suggested those moves may not be enough to end the crisis, referring to the suspended officials.

“At least some people have been held responsible,” he told reporters. “Whether they are responsible or not is not clear.”

Associated Press writers Jim Heintz in Kiev and John-Thor Dahlburg in Brussels contributed to this report.