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“It would not be nearly as dramatic here if the rest of the country wasn’t where it’s at,” Mr. Iverson said. “The truth is you’re seeing a lot of younger individuals — 19 to 34 — migrating to the state of North Dakota for economic opportunities.”

The District of Columbia, meanwhile, is seeing the same sort of increase that other big cities are enjoying. Quality of life, availability of housing and amenities are attracting people to downtown areas, while suburban areas are still struggling in the sluggish economy, Mr. Frey said.

“You look at North Dakota and D.C., I think under any circumstances neither of them are bellwethers for the nation,” Mr. Frey said.

Some demographers had expected this to be the year that Florida overtook New York as the third-largest state in the country, but the Empire State managed to delay that until at least 2014, growing by 75,000 and keeping ahead of Florida.

Still, another year of growing more than 200,000 and Florida will take over, in another signal of the shift away from the Northeast and Midwest and to Sunbelt states.

In total numbers, Texas was the fastest-growing state, adding 387,397 residents in 2013. California added 332,643, for second place.

As for next year, the Census Bureau said there will be a birth every 8 seconds and a death every 12 seconds in the U.S.

Worldwide, there are 4.3 births every second and 1.8 deaths. The population on Jan. 1 will be 7.138 billion, or 1.1 percent higher than it was a year earlier. India led all countries in growth, with 15.6 million new people in 2013.