CAIRO (AP) — The backlash, which includes self-defense courses for women and even threats of violent retaliation, is fueled by ultraconservative Islamists who suggest that women invite assault by attending anti-government protests where they mix with men.
At marches against sexual harassment in Cairo, women have brandished kitchen knives in the air. Stenciled drawings on building walls depict girls fighting off men with swords. Signs threaten to “cut off the hand” of attackers.
The reaction comes at a particularly heated moment. While the latest wave of demonstrations against President Mohammed Morsi’s rule has cooled in recent days, large protests have grown increasingly violent.
A hard-core minority of demonstrators has vowed to take on the government, and police have responded with force. About 70 people have been killed in clashes with security forces since Jan. 25, the second anniversary of the revolt that deposed longtime autocrat Hosni Mubarak.
Harassment has long been a problem in this patriarchal society, and attacks against female demonstrators have occurred under the democratically elected Mr. Morsi, the military council that ruled before him and Mr. Mubarak, who governed the Arab world’s most populous country for nearly three decades.
The new element, however, is the increasingly sexual nature of the violence.
Sexual assaults at protests, where women have been groped, stripped and even raped, have risen both in number and intensity in the past year, reaching a peak on the uprising’s anniversary.
On that day alone, activists reported two dozen cases of assaults against women at demonstrations in and around Cairo’s central Tahrir Square, one of which involved the rape of a 19-year-old. The United Nations responded by urging the government to take action.
Activists say the attacks are organized by opponents of the demonstrations, who aim to make protests seem less representative by removing women from the scene. To date, no specific groups have been charged.
Hard-line Islamists have seized on the issue to propose their own solution: limit female protesters to designated areas.
On Monday, members of the human rights commission of the Islamist-dominated legislative assembly criticized women for rallying among men and in areas considered unsafe.
While they urged passage of a new law to regulate demonstrations and facilitate police protection, one prominent member said that women should not go to protests.
“Sometimes, the girl herself is fully responsible for rape because she puts herself in this situation,” lawmaker Adel Afify said in comments carried by several Egyptian newspapers.
The remarks followed a video posted last week by a hard-line cleric who said women headed to protests were “crusaders” and “devils” who were “going there to get raped.” The cleric, Mohammed Abdullah, and Mr. Afify are both members of the ultraconservative Salafi movement.
Women’s rights groups were infuriated, denouncing the comments in demonstrations in Egypt and elsewhere Tuesday. A Beirut-based online movement, the Uprising of Women in the Arab World, called for worldwide protests in front of Egyptian embassies, posting photos of demonstrations from a string of countries on their Facebook page.