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Mr. Cummings opposed the Saturday mail cut, while Mr. Issa backed the move. Still, both told the Senate panel that Congress needs to pass postal legislation.

Meanwhile, union leaders insisted that any legislation should rule out cutting Saturday mail. Jeanette Dwyer, president of the National Rural Letter Carriers’ Association, said the plan would ruin the Postal Service and abandon Americans who rely on the mail service.

She also questioned polling data cited by Mr. Donahoe, saying postal officials got the answers they wanted by asking questions in misleading ways.