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Trayvon Martin’s brother, Jahvaris Fulton, said on Twitter: “Et tu America?” — a reference to the Latin phrase “Et tu, Brute?” known as an expression of betrayal.

Protesters took to the streets late Saturday and into Sunday morning in Florida and other states, largely heeding the advice of officials and others who urged them not to resort to violence.

Authorities said in California media reports that some marchers in Oakland vandalized a police squad car and police formed a line to block some demonstrators there. TV news helicopter footage showed some people trying to start fires in the street and spray-painting anti-police graffiti. The demonstration followed a raucous but largely peaceful protest in San Francisco and another in Los Angeles. An Oakland police dispatch said about 100 people protested there but gave no word of any arrests

Celebrities also reacted. Beyonce called at a Nashville concert for a moment of silence for Martin. Rapper Young Jeezy released a song in Martin’s memory, and Russell Simmons called for peace.

NAACP President Benjamin Jealous started a petition calling for the Justice Department to open a civil rights case against Mr. Zimmerman. “The most fundamental of civil rights — the right to life — was violated the night George Zimmerman stalked and then took the life of Trayvon Martin,” Jealous wrote in the petition, posted on the website MoveOn.org and addressed to Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr.

Martin family attorney Benjamin Crump acknowledged the disappointment of Trayvon Martin’s supporters, ranking the teen alongside civil rights heroes Medgar Evers and Emmett Till in the history of the fight for equal justice. However, Mr. Crump said, “for Trayvon to rest in peace, we must all be peaceful.”

Martin’s family maintained the teen was not the aggressor, and prosecutors suggested Martin was scared because he was being followed by a stranger. Defense attorneys, however, said Martin knocked Mr. Zimmerman down and was slamming the older man’s head against the concrete sidewalk when Mr. Zimmerman fired his gun.

Prosecutors called Mr. Zimmerman a liar and portrayed him as a “wannabe cop” vigilante who had grown frustrated by break-ins in his neighborhood committed primarily by young black men. Mr. Zimmerman assumed Mr. Martin was up to no good and took the law into his own hands, prosecutors said.

State Attorney Angela Corey said after the verdict that she believed second-degree murder was the appropriate charge because Mr. Zimmerman’s mindset “fit the bill of second-degree murder.”

“We charged what we believed we could prove,” Ms. Corey said.

Mr. Zimmerman also had some supporters outside the courthouse, including Cindy Lenzen, 50, of Casslebury, Fla., and her brother, 52-year-old Chris Bay, who stood watching others chant slogans such as “The whole system’s guilty.”

Ms. Lenzen and Mr. Bay, who are white, called the entire case “a tragedy,” especially for Mr. Zimmerman.

“It’s a tragedy that he’s going to suffer for the rest of his life,” Mr. Bay said. “No one wins either way. This is going to be a recurring nightmare in his mind every night.”

Before a special prosecutor assigned to the case ordered Mr. Zimmerman’s arrest, thousands of protesters had gathered in Sanford, Miami, New York and elsewhere, many wearing hoodies like the one Martin had on the night he died. They also carried Skittles and a can of iced tea, items that Martin had in his pocket. President Obama also had weighed in, saying that if he had a son, “he’d look like Trayvon.”

Despite the racially charged nature of the case, race was barely mentioned at the trial.

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