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As police cleared the area, many protesters ran into hotels for shelter. A standoff developed at a luxury hotel on the edge of the park, where police opened up with water cannon against protesters and journalists outside before throwing tear gas at the entrance, filling the lobby with white smoke. At other hotels, plain-clothes policemen turned up outside, demanding the protesters come out.

As the tear gas settled, bulldozers moved into the park, scooping up debris and loading it into trucks. Crews of workmen in fluorescent yellow vests and plain-clothes police went through the abandoned belongings, opening bags and searching their contents before tearing down the tents, food centers and library the protesters had set up in what had become a bustling tent city.

Huseyin Celik, the spokesman for Mr. Erdogan’s Justice and Development Party, told NTV that the sit-in had to end.

“They had made their voice heard. … Our government could not have allowed such an occupation to go on until the end,” he said.

• Burhan Ozbilici and Jamey Keaten in Ankara contributed to this article.