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Last year, Mr. Boehner declined to bring a farm bill to the House floor to avoid a nasty intraparty fight ahead of the November elections, as farm state Republicans pushed for crop subsidies while other GOP conservatives demanded widespread cuts.

Democrats in North Dakota and Montana used the issue to attack Republican challengers, and GOP Senate candidates in those states — both of whom were in the House at the time — ended up losing races that political handicappers had expected them to win.

The 2008 farm bill expired in September, so benefits have been shored up through temporary funding extensions.

“I think it was a mistake that we didn’t have the opportunity to vote on this last year,” Rep. Tom Cole, Oklahoma Republican, said Monday.