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Mr. Lundry characterized the issue, in part, as “a problem of culture and literacy,” with some within the Republican Party establishment simply unable to put into proper perspective the data they’re looking at.

The ingrained attitude of the Republican Party also is partly to blame, said Justin Hart, a digital strategist who joined the Romney campaign about two months before Election Day.Even after losing efforts such as the ones in 2008 and 2012, Mr. Hart said, many within the party aren’t willing to cut ties with some of the same political figures who have been on the scene for decades.

“We love the notion of loyalty and we think that’s part of human nature,” he said. “We’ve got to hire technologists first and politicos second. That wasn’t the case in [the Romney] campaign.”