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“Today I just want to be a spectator of history. It is just so validating,” said Micah Thaun Tran, of Golden Valley, Minn., who said he and his partner are planning a fall wedding.

Gay-marriage opponents went to the statehouse too: Don Lee of Eagan, Minn., placed a tombstone on the front lawn with the words “R.I.P. Marriage 2013.”

“The legislation being passed today is the end of marriage as we know it in Minnesota,” Mr. Lee said. “It’s a transformation from a forward-looking, sacrificial institution to one focused on adult desires. People don’t realize the damage they are doing. It’s a fight against biology.”

John Helmberger, head of the main opposition group Minnesotans for Marriage, told supporters, “Pray today for God to intervene.”

Other states that have gay marriage are Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Washington and New York, as well as the District of Columbia.

Many states have constitutional amendments against gay marriage, but battles are still likely in Illinois, New Jersey, Indiana, Wyoming, New Mexico, Pennsylvania and West Virginia.

This article is based in part on wire service reports.