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Mr. Coburn and Sen. Claire McCaskill, Missouri Democrat, introduced an identical bill last year, but Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, Nevada Democrat, declined to bring it to the floor.

Mr. Coburn has proposed additional legislation that would bar tax evaders from receiving government assistance — including grants, contracts, loans and agriculture-related tax credits.

He has submitted the measure as an amendment to the Senate’s $955 billion farm bill — a measure that includes agricultural subsides and the food-stamp program. A vote is expected in the coming weeks.