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The exchanges are state-based markets where individuals without insurance can shop for plans, often with the aid of government subsidies.

The administration hoped most states would run their own exchanges, but only 14 plus the District of Columbia chose to, leaving the federal government to run the rest. Consumers in those states have had to navigate the glitch-filled federal website, or apply in person or through the mail.

Of those who did enroll, roughly a third — 35,364 — came from California, the most populous state in the nation. New York contributed the second-highest number, with 16,404. Both of those states are running their own exchanges.

All told, state-run exchanges contributed 79,391 enrollees, compared with 26,794 from the federal system.

Texas and Florida, relying on the federal government to run their exchanges, accounted for 2,991 and 3,571 enrollees, respectively.

HHS officials said the enrollment figures reflect those who have selected plans but may or may not have made their first payments to the insurers.

The administration has vowed that the federal website will be working smoothly for the “vast majority” of users by the end of this month, and they hope many consumers will return to the site in December to have coverage at the beginning of next year.

That is when the individual mandate will require all Americans to have coverage. Penalties won’t be assessed until after three consecutive months without coverage, meaning March 31 is the effective deadline.

The Congressional Budget Office projected 7 million people would enroll on the exchanges during Obamacare’s inaugural period, from Oct. 1 through March 31.

The exchanges and the optional state-by-state expansion of Medicaid benefits are key pillars of the health care law, which Democratic majorities muscled through Congress in 2010.

Rep. Darrell E. Issa, California Republican and chairman of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, said Wednesday that the White House made a “monumental mistake” by hurtling forward with Obamacare’s Web-based markets Oct. 1 only to see the portals “effectively explode on the launchpad.”

Henry Chao, deputy chief information officer for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, told Mr. Issa’s committee that the agency underestimated the number of users who would log on to the federal website at the same time. The agency added capacity, but “unanticipated technical problems surfaced.”

“Some of those problems have been resolved, and the site is functioning much better than it did initially,” Mr. Chao told the committee.

Republican critiques have shifted over time, starting with the federal website’s glitches before turning to the millions of Americans who will lose their health care plans because they don’t meet minimum-coverage standards.

While some Democrats are frustrated with the delays, others preach patience.

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