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Mr. Karzai argued that Afghanistan needs more time to ensure that the United States was committed to peace in the country and stressed that the elections were a key date. He also hinted that if the agreement is signed now, he will lose the influence he needs to ensure that the elections are not the subject of manipulation.

In the past Mr. Karzi has accused the United States of interfering in the 2009 elections, which he almost lost. That election was so soiled that U.N.-backed fraud investigators threw out more than a million votes — enough to force Mr. Karzai into a second-round vote. The rerun was later canceled when Mr. Abdullah dropped out. Mr. Karzai is not running in the upcoming elections, but his brother is.

He said he told the Americans ahead of the assembly that “you waited 12 years and you can’t wait another five months?”

Mr. Karzai, often looking angry, argued repeatedly that Afghanistan needed more time.

“We need a period of implementation. We want a period of implementation for peace. Peace is our condition. If they bring peace, we will sign it,” he said. He did not say how peace could be brought quickly to the country.

His refusal to commit to signing by the end of the year angered the chairman of the Loya Jirga and Mr. Karzai’s one-time mentor, former President Sibghatullah Mojaddedi.

“You should sign it; you should sign it for this issue to be over,” Mr. Mojaddedi yelled at Mr. Karzai.

“This is our request, that this agreement should be signed very soon, and if the president does not sign it, I will promise you that, as I am a servant of this nation who has served these people for 40 to 50 years, I will resign and I will leave this country,” the 89-year-old Mr. Mojaddedi said.

Mr. Karzai stunned the U.S. when he urged delegates on Thursday’s opening day to approve the security pact but said he will leave it to his successor to sign it.

• Associated Press writer Amir Shah contributed to this report.