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Many jurisdictions use electronic voter machines with touchscreen ballots. The tapes from those machines will simply be retallied. But some places also use optical scan ballots in which voters fill in a bubble to choose a candidate.

The optical scan tabulators are rerun through a program that counts only the votes for the race being scrutinized. The recount will look for any ballots that might not have been read by the machine because they were damaged or torn or because the voter attempted to change a selection.

The nonpartisan Virginia Public Access Project estimated about 712,000 paper ballots would need to be rerun through optical scan machines.

The campaign also drew special attention to “undervotes,” in which a voter did not appear to have made a choice in all the elections on the ballot. The lawyers said it was possible that a voter could have indicated their preference with an arrow or a check rather than filling in the bubble, and the machine did not register the mark even though their preference was clear.

Disputed ballots will be sealed and sent to Richmond for the recount court to decide.

Officials also will hand count absentee and provisional ballots, which are on paper.

During the initial ballot certification, Republican observers were critical of the way Fairfax County’s Electoral Board handled provisional ballots and the “extraordinary” lengths the county went to make sure votes were counted — sentiments also shared by Mr. Judd when making his personal statement during the election certification.

Asked whether they anticipated more problems with the large jurisdiction, Ashley L. Taylor Jr., a member of Mr. Obenshain’s legal team acknowledged concerns could arise as the recount progresses but said at this point it’s “premature to focus on any single jurisdiction and those ballots.”