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“This has often occurred without proper training or vetting to screen out human rights violators, continuing the risk of human rights violations in the days ahead,” said Mr. Jannuzi.

Even as the government has been largely powerless against these groups, Libyans have often risen up against the militias.

The most prominent backlash followed the Sept. 11, 2012, terrorist attack on the U.S. diplomatic compound in the eastern city of Benghazi. Terrorists killed U.S. Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens, State Department officer Sean Smith, and former Navy SEALs Glen Doherty and Tyrone Woods.

Libyans stormed the base of Ansar al-Shariah, the group suspected in the attack, forcing it to abandon the city. But Ansar al-Shariah has since returned to Benghazi.