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For now, there is little movement on Capitol Hill.

The House passed another bill to fund a part of the government — in this case, the Food and Drug Administration — marking the ninth piece of government that House Republicans have tried to fund.

But Senate Democrats have been reluctant to take up any of those bills, saying either all of the government must be funded or none will be. Indeed, the Senate hasn’t voted on anything related to the shutdown since it began Oct. 1.

The gridlock now threatens to extend into the debt fight, with an Oct. 17 deadline looming.

Mr. Obama said he won’t negotiate with Congress raising the limit beyond the current $16.7 trillion.

The president said he is “happy” to talk with Republicans about budget issues, but not under threat of a shutdown or a government default.

White House press secretary Jay Carney went a step further, saying Mr. Obama will never negotiate with lawmakers on raising the debt limit as long as he is president.

“Whether it’s today, or a number of weeks from now, or a number of months from now, or a number of years from now, it will always be Congress‘ responsibility to raise our debt ceiling so that the United States can pay the bills that Congress has incurred,” Mr. Carney said. “It will always be, as long as he’s president, President Obama’s position that that responsibility is not negotiable.”

Mr. Obama did make a deal with congressional Republicans in 2011 over raising the debt ceiling, linking the move to legislation that has resulted in the “sequester” budget cuts that took effect in March. Ever since, the president has been trying to reverse those cuts.

In Indonesia, Mr. Kerry tried to assure Asian leaders at the conference that the U.S. won’t be weakened by the gridlock.

“No one should mistake what is happening in Washington as anything more than a moment of politics,” Mr. Kerry said in Bali. Mr. Obama’s absence is especially poorly timed as Chinese President Xi Jinping is making overtures with other Asian nations on trade and national security issues.

⦁ Stephen Dinan contributed to this report.