BEIRUT (AP) - Syrian government forces have attacked rebel-held areas with poisonous chlorine gas in recent weeks and months, leaving men, women and children coughing, choking and gasping for breath, according to Associated Press interviews with more than a dozen activists, medics and residents on the opposition side.
The reports were denied by Syria and have yet to be confirmed by any foreign country or international organization. But if true, they highlight the limitations of the global effort to rid President Bashar Assad’s government of its chemical weapons.
Witnesses near Damascus and in a central rebel-held village told the AP of dozens of cases of choking, fainting and other afflictions from inhaling fumes that some said were yellowish and smelled like chlorine cleanser. They said the fumes came from hand grenades and helicopter-dropped “barrel bombs,” which are crude containers packed with explosives.
Activists have posted videos similar, though on a far smaller scale, to those from last August’s chemical weapons attack near Damascus that killed hundreds of people and nearly triggered U.S. airstrikes against Syria. The new footage depicts pale-faced men, women and children coughing and gasping at field hospitals.
It’s an accusation that carries high stakes, and the Syrian opposition has an interest in pushing such claims in hopes of drawing the international community into taking stern action against Assad.
So far, the new images have barely registered with the international community, underscoring deep reluctance by world powers to step into another murky episode in Syria’s civil war days ahead of Sunday’s deadline for the government to hand over all its chemical weapons for destruction.
Chlorine is a potentially lethal chemical with a multitude of ordinary civilian uses, including laundry bleach and swimming-pool disinfectant. In high concentrations, it can attack the lungs and asphyxiate victims.
While chlorine was first deployed on the battlefield in World War I, it is no longer officially considered a warfare agent and is not among the chemicals declared by Syria. It is not as effective at killing as sarin - the nerve agent that was apparently used last summer - and experts say it is difficult to achieve high concentrations of chlorine by dropping it from the air.
Still, any toxic chemical is considered to be a chemical weapon if it is used for military purposes. Consequently, Syria’s use of chlorine-filled bombs, if confirmed, would be a violation of the chemical weapons treaty that Assad’s government signed last year as part of a deal to hand over its stockpile.
U.S. State Department Jen Psaki said Monday that officials were still trying to determine what happened. On Sunday, French President Francois Hollande told Europe 1 radio station there were “elements” suggesting recent use of chemical weapons, but no proof.
“I can understand the reluctance to undertake any firm action right now because the big priority is to get the other chemicals out of the country,” said Jean Pascal Zanders, an independent chemical weapons consultant and disarmament expert. “Once these are out of the country, we can probably see a completely different dynamic with regards to Syria emerge. People will be less deferential to the Assad regime.”
Zanders, who remains skeptical about the claims emerging from Syria pending more proof, said nobody wanted to upset the Assad government to the point that it would cease all cooperation, particularly with the relationship between the U.S. and Russia strained because of the Ukraine crisis.
Russia was a main sponsor of the deal to disarm Syria of its chemical weapons, an agreement that averted U.S. strikes last year. The Syrian government has been slowly shipping the deadly agents out. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons has so far confirmed the removal of 86 percent of Syria’s declared stockpile.
Opposition forces have accused the government of using small amounts of poisonous gas over the past few months in several incidents affecting more than 100 people.