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Hincapie said that his drug use eventually “took on the significance of simply taking vitamins,” and described his routine. He took EPO every other day for two weeks before a major race, up until two days before the event, with testosterone or growth hormone twice a week. He also took part in blood doping, which had become prevalent throughout cycling.

Hincapie writes that neither Armstrong nor Johan Bruyneel, their longtime team director, forced riders to dope. But he did recall taking a vial of EPO from Armstrong in 2005, and that Bruyneel was “very involved in the process of our drug taking.”

Bruyneel was handed a 10-year ban on Tuesday for his role in years of organized doping. The verdict from an American Arbitration Association panel also resulted in eight-year bans for team doctor Pedro Celaya and trainer Jose “Pepe” Marti.

Hincapie said a close call with testers and the birth of his first child were an “epiphany,” and he quit doping in 2006. But his past hung over him for the remainder of his career, which ended in 2012, as riders such as Floyd Landis threatened to expose their widespread drug use.

It was almost a relief, Hincapie said, when USADA’s investigation finally caught up to him.

These days, Hincapie believes USADA was merely doing its job. But he also believes his team, and Armstrong in particular, was unfairly targeted. And when he asked USADA CEO Travis Tygart why their team was accused of having “the most sophisticated, professionalized and successful doping program that he sport has ever seen,” Hincapie said he never received a straight answer.

“There are a lot of riders in the sport today going, ‘Thank God we’re not in that position,’” Hincapie said. “But they made it look like we were the only team, and I mentioned many times to Travis, he knew there were other teams doing this stuff. There were a lot of other teams we felt had even more aggressive programs than we did, and that never came out.”