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The merchant explained that dust in the grenade would “saturate the objective.” When Mr. Pilger asked if “objective” meant people, the merchant became visibly uncomfortable. Mr. Pilger noted that the salesmen often “have the greatest difficulty saying ‘people’ and ‘kill’ and ‘maim.’”

“This, Bowers says, is a perfect example of how what you say — or what you find too excruciating to say — affects the way you think and act,” the Guardian article stated, regardless of whether the words are dirty or not.

Conflicting research

The dearth of information about profanity’s affect on humans is why Sarah Coyne, a professor at Brigham Young University, thinks the relationship between kids, swearing and the media warrants further research.

“I was curious about this in terms of movie ratings systems,” Ms. Coyne said. “If there’s nothing wrong with profanity, why in the world would you rate a movie differently because there’s profanity in it?”

In 2010, Ms. Coyne conducted a correlation study that surveyed more than 200 Missouri middle-school kids about how much profanity they were exposed to in media and their tendencies toward aggressive behavior like hitting or gossiping. She and the team of researchers found that children who were exposed to profanity in the media had a positive outlook on both the use of swear words as well as acts of physical and non-physical aggression.

Ms. Coyne says the study doesn’t identify a cause for childhood swearing, but the strength of the correlation surprised her.

“It could be that a kid who swears seeks out media with a lot of swearing. What you need to do then is do an experiment and expose them to profanity or not,” she said. “But I think it’s ethically pretty hard to do that.”

Mr. Jay did similar research with two 2006 studies. One asked 47 college students to write personal narratives about childhood swearing. The other surveyed more than 200 college students about family attitudes and punishment for swearing. Most cited factors besides the media as causes of profanity.

“Most of the participants (52 percent) thought that people curse out of habit, learned to curse from parents (12 percent) or siblings (6 percent),” the study stated. “A small percentage of participants regarded television (6 percent) or movies (4 percent) as causal factors.”

“It’s really difficult to find any social science evidence that a word harms you,” Mr. Jay said. “Language simply isn’t a pathway into any kind of pathology. It’s part of human nature.”

Taking control at home

Until there’s harder proof that profanity can harm children, Ms. Coyne and Mr. Jay agree that one thing can make all the difference about how kids experience swearing: parents.

“Kids are going to learn and use this language,” Jay said. “It’s the taboo imposed on this language that gives it its power. The more you punish kids, the more you’ve shown them how powerful it is.”

Ms. Coyne stressed the importance of parents leading by example.

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