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It was Mrs. Martin who first made the claims of the department’s so-called “Plantation” where black employees were sent with no clear course of promotions or career track. Formally, the department is called the Office of Consumer Response Intake Section.

“There is an entire section in Consumer Response Intake that is 100 percent African-American, even the contractors, and it is called ‘The Plantation,’” Mrs. Martin testified. “And people tell me it’s very hard to leave The Plantation. You must be extremely savvy, or you must [have] somebody else [help you] to get out. And I will note, you cannot say education is a factor, because there are licensed attorneys and [people with] advanced master’s degrees working there.”

Jen Howard, a spokeswoman at CFPB, says Mrs. Martin’s claims contained inaccurate information.

“There have been over 50 promotions within the Intake Section, and over 90 percent of the employees in the section who have received at least one promotion are minorities,” said Ms. Howard in a written response.

“Three employees in the section have been promoted to supervisory roles outside of the section but within Consumer Response, all of whom are African-American. Four employees in the section have been promoted from ‘Intake Specialist’ to ‘Intake Team Lead,’ all of whom are African-American,” she said.

Nonetheless, the accusations are so serious and widespread that the Government Accountability Office announced this month that it will begin an investigation into CFPB’s organizational culture and management practices.

The investigation was requested by Rep. Patrick T. McHenry, North Carolina Republican and chairman of the House Financial Services Oversight and Accountability Subcommittee, which held the hearings; by Financial Services Committee Chairman Jeb Hensarling, Texas Republican; and Consumer Subcommittee Chairwoman Shelley Moore Capito, West Virginia Republican.

Since hearings began in April, Mr. McHenry said his office has heard from more than 32 employees complaining about maltreatment at the agency.

“The treatment of women and minorities at the CFPB is deplorable,” Mr. McHenry said in a statement to The Times. “Unfortunately, due to the unique structure of the bureau — leaving it free from both congressional and executive branch oversight — there is little that can be done to stop these rogue agency leaders.

“While my subcommittee will continue its oversight efforts, ultimately it is Director Cordray’s responsibility to realize the depth of these issues and finally address the suffering of so many CFPB employees,” he said.

For now, Mr. Naraghi, and the many more like him who came forward anonymously, are both negotiating their cases with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and trying to navigate the tricky management system to steer clear of retaliation.

Some employees interviewed by The Times have since left the agency, giving up hope of any major institutional change in the near future.

CFPB management “tried to sully my record — they wanted me to sign a settlement with them and clear them of any wrongdoing. I’m not going to do that,” said Mr. Naraghi, who is waiting on a hearing date for his grievance case. “What’s right is right. I don’t want to bring down the CFPB, but I do have a serious problem with its management.”