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That lawsuit now has more than 1,000 plaintiffs. They have asked that a notice be sent to all 1.3 million workers who had to work throughout the shutdown.

Mr. Cox said the shutdown should be a warning to Congress.

“Federal employees are motivated by delivering services to the American people, and no one was more frustrated by the shutdown than federal employees who were forced to stay home,” he said. “Hopefully Congress has learned a lesson that shutting down the government to score political points benefits no one and harms everyone.”

Fiscal year 2013 was slightly less chaotic for federal employees, many of whom were furloughed because of the “sequester” budget cuts that reduced agency budgets nearly halfway through the fiscal year.

On the other side of the ledger, the federal government is generous with paid holidays, tallying a standard 10 every year. The number sometimes is higher because the president can declare extra holidays, including Christmas Eve.

Mr. Obama didn’t give employees Dec. 24 off last year, however. Analysts said that is usually reserved for when Christmas falls on a Tuesday or a Friday and a Christmas Eve holiday would create a four-day weekend.