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When he then alternatively accepted a $15 billion loan package from Russia, the protests gained steam and its grievances expanded to include corruption, human rights abuses and then calls for Mr. Yanukovych’s resignation.

In Russia, meanwhile, the Putin government appeared willing to support Mr. Yanukovych at any cost, hoping it could count on Ukraine as a key element in a Moscow-backed union of former Soviet states.

But with the Ukrainian president now ousted, it is unclear whether Moscow will come through with the funds it has promised.

There were reports Sunday of a top official in Moscow saying the next tranche of the $15 billion loan package would not be paid until a new government is fully formed in Kiev.

The main protest camp in Kiev was filled Sunday afternoon with dedicated pro-democracy demonstrators setting up tents. Across the country, protesters smashed portraits of Mr. Yanukovych and took down statues of Soviet founder Vladimir Lenin.

It was a stunning reversal of fortune from last week’s bloody protests, when 25 people were killed and nearly 250 injured when heavily armed and Yanukovych-backed authorities cracked down on the camp — a violent turn that seemed only to embolden the protesters.

Mr. Turchinov said in a televised address Sunday that the top priorities of the post-Yanukovych government include “returning to the path of European integration,” Russian news agencies reported.

The parliamentary speaker is a close ally of Yulia Tymoshenko, a former prime minister who was imprisoned by the Yanukovych government in 2011.

Ms. Tymoshenko, who rose as a heroine of Ukraine’s pro-democracy movement during the 2004 Orange Revolution, was freed from prison over the weekend and could emerge as a major player if new elections are held.

Several news organizations reported that the new leadership in Kiev seeks to hold presidential elections May 25.

In Washington, Ms. Rice tried to downplay the idea that the U.S. and Russia have opposing interests in Ukraine.

“This is not about the U.S. and Russia; this is about whether the people of Ukraine have the opportunity to fulfill their aspirations and be democratic and be part of Europe, which they choose to be,” she said.

“It’s in nobody’s interest to see violence returned and the situation escalate,” said Ms. Rice, adding that Ukraine could have “long-standing historic and cultural ties to Russia” while moving to “integrate more closely with Europe.”

“These need not be mutually exclusive,” she said.

• This article is based in part on wire service reports.