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Step to artificial hand that feels what you touch
Question of the Day
WASHINGTON (AP) - It’s not quite the bionics of science fiction, but European researchers have created a robotic hand that gave an amputee a sense of touch he hadn’t felt in a decade.
The experiment lasted only a week, but it let the patient feel if different objects - a bottle, a baseball, some cotton, a mandarin orange - were hard or soft, slim or round, and intuitively adjust his grasp.
It will take years of additional research before an artificial hand that feels becomes a reality. But the research released Wednesday is part of a major effort to create more lifelike and usable prosthetics.
“It was just amazing,” said Dennis Aabo Sorensen of Aalborg, Denmark, who lost his left hand in a fireworks accident and volunteered to pilot-test the bulky prototype. “It was the closest I have had to feeling like a normal hand.”
This isn’t the first time scientists have tried to give some sense of touch to artificial hands; a few other pilot projects have been reported in the U.S. and Europe.
This newest experiment is among the most advanced, essentially creating a loop that let the robotic hand rapidly communicate with Sorensen’s brain so he could feel and react in real time. The work was published in the journal Science Translational Medicine.
“It was interesting to see how fast he was able to master this,” said neuroengineer Silvestro Micera of Switzerland’s Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, who led the Swiss and Italian research team. “He was able to use this information immediately in a quite sophisticated way.”
Scientists have made great strides in recent years in improving the dexterity of prosthetics. But the sense of touch has been a much more difficult challenge and is one reason that many patients don’t use their prosthetic hands as much as they’d like.
Consider: Grab something and your own hand naturally grasps with just enough force to hang on. Users of prosthetic hands have to carefully watch every motion, judging by eye instead of touch how tightly to squeeze. The results can be clumsy, with dropped dishes or crushed objects.
“You always have to look and see what’s going on, so that’s what is so much different from this new hand that I tried,” Sorensen, 36, said in a telephone interview.
First, doctors at Rome’s Gemelli Hospital implanted tiny electrodes inside two nerves - the ulnar and median nerves - in the stump of Sorensen’s arm.
Those nerves normally would allow for certain sensations in a hand. When researchers zapped them with a weak electrical signal, Sorensen said it felt like his missing fingers were moving, showing the nerves still could relay information.
Meanwhile, Micera’s team put sensors on two fingers of a robotic hand to detect information about what the artificial fingers touched.
For one week, cords snaked from a bandage on Sorensen’s arm to the artificial hand, and the electrodes zapped the nerves in proportion to what the sensors detected.
“It is really putting the brain back in control of the system,” said biomedical engineer Dustin Tyler of Case Western Reserve University, who wasn’t involved with the European work but leads a team in Ohio that recently created and tested a similar touch-enabled hand. “That’s an important step.”
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