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“Another point that may have gotten missed,” Tygart added, “is that insiders like Bosch want to give the perception they know. It’s part of the pitch, how you market to pro athletes. So saying 10:45 instead of 10:30 makes the athlete think, ‘Hey, this guy really knows his stuff.’”

In Bosch’s case, that was largely true. So much so that anti-doping experts like Tygart and Wadler have broadened the scope of their investigations to include many of the same tactics law enforcement agencies use to pursue suppliers of a wide range of illegal drugs.

“How many guys will take (Bosch‘s) protocols and adopt them?” Wadler asked. “Plenty. Enhancing performance is tied up with a lot of things, legal and illegal, but the bottom line is always money. … When we look at this case, it’s troubling in a very real sense because most of the science passes muster.

“What I’d stress is not the part about it being good science, but that it’s illicit science,” he said finally. “And quite possibly, dangerous at some level, too.”


Jim Litke is a national sports columnist for The Associated Press. Write to him at and follow him at