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Mr. Obama also is pushing Congress to extend jobless benefits for the long-term unemployed, legislation that would cost about $26 billion over a full year. Federal unemployment assistance expired in December for about 1.3 million people, and lawmakers haven’t agreed on how long to extend the benefits or how to pay for them.

Mr. Obama will travel Wednesday and Thursday to promote his initiatives, with stops planned in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Tennessee.

The broader initiatives outlined by Mr. Obama, including increasing the minimum wage and expanding early childhood education programs, need congressional approval. Both proposals stalled after Mr. Obama first announced them in last year’s State of the Union address.