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In November, 151 House Democrats sent a letter to Mr. Obama opposing fast-track authority. Rep. Rosa DeLauro, Connecticut Democrat, said they are concerned about what they said was the loss of more than 5 million U.S. manufacturing jobs after the North American Free Trade Agreement was signed with Mexico and Canada almost two decades ago.

The Democrats were joined by unlikely allies — 23 House Republicans, including several lawmakers affiliated with the tea party who oppose the expansion of presidential power under fast track.