- Associated Press - Saturday, July 12, 2014

WAITE PARK, Minn. (AP) - Crystal Boyd strained four bees, three flies and one leafhopper from a yellow pan trap, the third of 12 in a transect topping a granite outcrop in Quarry Park Scientific and Natural Area.

She popped everything into a labeled, zip-top plastic bag, which will share space in her home freezer with her husband’s chocolate Popsicles until the field season ends. Then she’ll process the bees; identify, label and enter them in a database; and send them off to the University of Minnesota Insect Collection.

The aim is to discover what lives where - data that could inform small-scale farmers looking for alternative pollinators and land managers considering wildflowers’ genetic diversity.

Boyd, a Minnesota Department of Natural Resources bee researcher working with the Minnesota Biological Survey, thinks she may ID as many as 400 native bee species, the St. Cloud Times (http://on.sctimes.com/1oeSkmB) reported.

In June, she wrapped up a Scientific and Natural Area project that took her to 12 sites, many of them southwestern Minnesota prairies. During the two-year effort that launched July 1, she’ll work on that state species list, visit insect museum collections and complete more surveys. The last attempt to establish a baseline for state species, made in 1919, went unfinished after the researcher died. At the time, insects weren’t high on the list.

“We need to know what’s out there,” said Elaine Evans, who is earning her doctorate in entomology from the University of Minnesota. “The survey is the first step to assess the health of our pollinator population in Minnesota.”

Evans spoke from the University of Minnesota’s Bee Lab, where the focus is on bee health. Most of that research centers on honeybees; hers centers on native bees - in particular, on how landscape affects the biodiversity of bees in North Dakota.

At Quarry Park Scientific and Natural Area, some of the bees that turned up in the shallow plastic cups painted white, blue or yellow inside to resemble flowers looked more like flies and nothing like honeybees. Boyd said people often are surprised to learn honeybees aren’t native. They came here with European settlers who wanted effective pollinators.

What researchers learn about the problems affecting one may help the other.

“Honeybees are like cattle. We know a lot about how to manage cattle and what to do when cows get sick. And native bees are like moose. We don’t know as much about what to do when moose get sick or how to manage moose,” Boyd said.

Still, native bees aren’t as flashy as moose or other large, hairy animals.

“The only reason they’re getting attention is because honeybees are in trouble so people are looking at alternatives,” said Heather Holm, Minnetonka-based landscape designer and “Pollinators of Native Plants” author.

Some bumblebees have been used to pollinate crops in Western states. Harnessing bumblebees and other native species for that purpose is largely ineffective. They don’t nest in colonies, and they don’t fly far. Holm said the maximum range is usually about a mile - not far enough to reach the center of many fields.

Smaller, organic operations might plant flowers and maintain nesting habitat to attract native bees.

While adept at pollinating crops, honeybees might not be as effective at pollinating wildflowers. Some plants don’t meet honeybees’ nutritional needs. Some are pollinated only by certain bees. Deep-throated flowers, for example, might require a bumblebee’s long tongue. Flowers such as Dutchman’s breeches may require a bumblebee’s strength to pry it open.

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