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Families and friends of Dutch passengers poured out their grief and anger at a meeting with their monarch and political leaders.

“This terrible disaster has left a deep wound in our society,” a somber King Willem-Alexander said after a private meeting with the next of kin. “The scar will be visible and tangible for years to come.”

The Dutch widely condemned the way the bodies were treated in Ukraine and the fact that they had not been returned.

In an unusual move that underscored the severity of the trauma, the king gave a brief televised address to the nation after his meeting near Utrecht with hundreds of grieving relatives and friends.

“Many people said to us, ‘We at least want to take dignified leave of our loved ones,’” he said. “We understand their frustration and their pain. And we share their heartfelt wish for clarity on the cause of this disaster.”

Reporting from Russia’s tightly controlled media, which has favored the rebels throughout the conflict in Ukraine, has largely supported Mr. Putin’s positions and diverged sharply from Western coverage.

Russian media drew parallels with a Russian passenger jet carrying 78 people that the Ukrainian military mistakenly shot down in 2001 as it flew over the Black Sea.

An aviation source cited by Kremlin-owned news outlet RT also suggested that Ukrainian forces may have fired a rocket at the Boeing 777, mistaking the Malaysian airliner for Mr. Putin’s jet returning from a summit in Brazil.

This article is based in part on wire service reports.