- Associated Press - Monday, November 9, 2015

A glance at several recent incidents on U.S. college campuses involving race:

Nov. 9, 2015: The heads of the University of Missouri System and its flagship campus in Columbia announce they are resigning amid pressure by protesters and others who say they haven’t adequately responded to complaints about racial issues, including that minority students had been subjected to slurs. System President Tim Wolfe, whose resignation was effective immediately, said the blame lay with him. Meanwhile, several deans sent a letter to the system’s governing board calling for the ouster of the Columbia campus’ chancellor, R. Bowen Loftin. Loftin said he will step down at the end of the year and take a position as director of research facility development for the school. The protesters were given a big boost over the weekend when 30 black football players said they wouldn’t take part in team activities until Wolfe was gone.

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Nov. 6, 2015: At Yale University, weeks of tension erupted into protests after an Oct. 28 university email warning about racially insensitive Halloween costumes prompted a professor to complain that Yale and other campuses were becoming “places of censure and prohibition.” Peter Salovey, the president of Yale, said he was left “deeply troubled” by a meeting Thursday with minority students who said they didn’t believe the school was attuned to their needs. Also that day, hundreds of students surrounded Jonathan Holloway, the first black dean of Yale College, outside the main library and demanded to know why he had not communicated with the college community about allegations that a Sigma Alpha Epsilon member said “white girls only” at the door of a party the day before Halloween. The president of the fraternity has denied those allegations. Holloway and Salovey emailed the Yale community Friday acknowledging that more needed to be done.

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Oct. 8, 2015: At UCLA, some students overran Chancellor Gene Block’s office while hundreds of others marched on campus, days after some students wore blackface to a Kanye West-themed party thrown by a fraternity and a sorority. The school said it was investigating after photos from the party surfaced on social media and students began expressing outrage. Jerry Kang, vice chancellor for UCLA’s Office of Equity, Diversity and Inclusion, told the crowd of students he was heartbroken because “black Bruins’ lives matter.”

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Sept. 17, 2015: A former University of Mississippi student accused of hanging a noose around a statue of the school’s first black student last year was sentenced to six months in prison. The student pleaded guilty to using a threat of force to intimidate African-American students and school employees by helping hang the noose and drape an old Georgia state flag that incorporated a Confederate battle emblem on the statue of James Meredith. Federal prosecutors say two other students took part, and one of them was also charged. The men’s fraternity chapter was shuttered after the incident.

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April 1, 2015: After a month of protests, University of Maryland at College Park President Wallace Loh declared that a student’s racist and sexist 2014 email to fraternity brothers was “hateful and reprehensible,” but was constitutionally protected speech and didn’t violate school policies. On March 24, a number of students spoke out at a forum, expressing frustration with fraternity culture and unhappiness with the school’s response. The student who sent the email was suspended from Kappa Sigma fraternity and left campus for the semester.

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March 7, 2015: A video was posted online of fraternity members singing a racist song on a bus went viral, leading to widespread condemnation and protests at the University of Oklahoma. School President David Boren declared, “Real sooners are not racist,” and the school’s football team showed its disapproval of racist chant, with Coach Bob Stoops leading silent protests at Owen Field and players wearing black during the team’s normal practice time. The Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity was swiftly banned from campus, two members were expelled and more than two dozen others were disciplined over the incident.

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Compiled by Associated Press researcher Jennifer Farrar in New York.

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This story has been corrected to show the Yale president’s surname is Salovey, not Solovay.

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