Then-Secretary of State John Quincy Adams elaborated on Washington's admonition against objectless, gratuitous wars in his July 4, 1821 Address to Congress. He explained: "[America's] glory is not dominion, but liberty. Her march is the march of the mind. She has a spear and a shield: but the motto upon her shield is, Freedom, Independence, Peace. This has been her Declaration: this has been, as far as her necessary intercourse with the rest of mankind would permit, her practice."