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Topic - Michael N. Schmitt
The 2009 cyberattack by the U.S. and Israel that crippled Iran's nuclear program by sabotaging industrial equipment constituted "an act of force" and was likely illegal under international law, according to a manual commissioned by NATO's cyberwarfare center in Estonia.
Instead, the authors had tried to write the definitive account of "how does existing law apply in cyberspace," he said.
The international group of researchers who wrote the manual were unanimous that Stuxnet — the self-replicating cyberweapon that destroyed Iranian centrifuges that were enriching uranium — was an act of force, said Mr. Schmitt, professor of international law at the U.S. Naval War College in Newport, R.I.