- The Washington Times - Saturday, September 8, 2001

China supplied missile technology and related goods to Pakistan, Iran, North Korea and Libya, according to a CIA report made public yesterday.
The CIA report to Congress also identified Russia and North Korea as major exporters of nuclear, chemical and biological weapon-related equipment and missile systems to rogue states and unstable regions of the world.
The semiannual report covers the period from July to December of 2000 and reveals new details of several developing nations' programs to develop weapons of mass destruction.
Release of the report comes a week after the Bush administration slapped economic sanctions on China and Pakistan for violating U.S. laws aimed at halting the spread of missile technology.
The sanctions were applied after China last November agreed not to assist any nations in building up their nuclear missiles.
China's government has denied violating the November pledge and dismissed as "groundless" charges that it supplied missile goods to Pakistan.
"During the reporting period, Chinese entities provided Pakistan with missile-related technical assistance," the report said. "Pakistan has been moving toward domestic serial production of solid-propellent [short-range ballistic missiles] with Chinese help."
The report said Pakistan also needs continued support from China for its Shaheen-2 medium-range missile.
"In addition, firms in China have provided dual-use missile-related items, raw materials, and/or assistance to several other countries of proliferation concern such as Iran, North Korea, and Libya," the report said.
China's support for Pakistan's missile program was disclosed last month by The Washington Times. U.S. intelligence officials said China sold missile goods for Pakistan's Shaheen-1 and Shaheen-2 missiles both of which are judged to be nuclear-weapons delivery systems.
The CIA report also said there are indications China has continued to assist Pakistan in developing nuclear weapons in violation of a 1996 pledge to the United States not to do so.
In addition, China appears to have violated another pledge not to provide new assistance to Iran's nuclear program, which the CIA believes will be used to build nuclear arms.
The report said there are questions about continued Chinese nuclear cooperation with Iran in violation of its pledge and "the administration is seeking to address these questions with appropriate Chinese authorities."
Iran also sought Chinese assistance for its chemical-weapons program, although the CIA said it is "unclear" whether the efforts were successful.
China also supplied advanced conventional arms to Pakistan, Iran, Sudan and other nations.
Russia and North Korea, along with China, were identified in the report as "key suppliers" of missiles and weapons of mass destruction to unstable areas around the world.
"During the second half of 2000, entities in Russia, North Korea and China continued to supply crucial ballistic missile-related equipment, technology and expertise to Iran," the report said.
Russian firms "continued to supply a variety of ballistic missile-related goods and technical know-how to countries such as Iran, India, China and Libya."
Russian missile assistance helped Iran in particular to accelerate its medium-range Shahab-3 missile development. The missile has been flight tested three times, the report said.
The report concludes that continuing Russian missile assistance "likely supports Iranian efforts to develop new missiles and increase Tehran's self-sufficiency in missile production."
The report said Iran is building long-range Shahab-4 and Shahab-5 missiles.
Russia also is supplying nuclear reactors for both China's and India's naval-propulsion systems, the report said, adding that India has discussed leasing nuclear-powered attack submarines from Moscow.
North Korea was identified as a supplier of missile goods to nations in the Middle East, South Asia and North Africa.
The CIA report was produced by the Director of Central Intelligence Weapons Intelligence, Nonproliferation and Arms Control Center, known as WINPAC. The report is a censored version of a more detailed report required by the 1997 Intelligence Authorization Act.
Other highlights of the report include:
Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein is rebuilding a nuclear-weapons program, and in September, called for "nuclear mujahideen" — holy warriors — to "defeat the enemy."
Iran has a biological-weapons program and "limited capability for [biological-weapons] deployment."
Iraq is converting Czech-made L29 jet trainers into unmanned aerial vehicles, which have the capability to deliver chemical and biological weapons.
North Korea last year sought to purchase nuclear weapons-related technology.
Libya is building missiles with help from Yugoslavia, India, North Korea and China and may build a medium-range missile in the future.

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