- The Washington Times - Thursday, June 6, 2002

Oleg Kalugin was a major general in the Soviet KGB. Today he works in Alexandria alongside former FBI special agents and CIA officers whom he battled for years on the espionage front during the Cold War.How did he go from enemy to friend? He chuckles, then says, "It wasn't hard at all. I spent years in the United States. I always treated potential enemies as potential friends. It's part of the intelligence profession, the challenge of converting enemies to friends. Ideologically, we were separated, of course, and that made us enemies, but personally, we were friends, and the people I'm working with now are very nice people."
That's the kind of behind-the-scenes perspective that history and espionage buffs get when they take the SpyDrive, a 2-hour bus tour of D.C. sites associated with some of the city's most notorious spy cases. The drive is sponsored by the Centre for Counterintelligence and Security Studies, a nongovernmental center in Alexandria that provides counterintelligence and security training, education, and analysis for government agencies and private companies in the Washington area.
Gen. Kalugin, who came to the United States in the early 1990s after the fall of the Soviet Union but is not a U.S. citizen, is a professor at the center. He is frequently a co-host for the monthly tours, often with David Major, co-founder of the CI Centre and a retired 24-year veteran of the FBI and the White House's National Security Council. They provide tourists with a real "Spy vs. Spy" first-person feel for the role espionage has played and plays in Washington's history.
But Cold War and espionage buffs don't have to settle for just one bus tour to get their fill of spy stories and history. Individuals hoping to build a Cold War Museum on the old Lorton prison grounds also run a monthly spy tour that visits many of the same sites as the SpyDrive does. Then there is the International Spy Museum, which will open downtown in July, showcasing many Cold War espionage artifacts, such as a lipstick-case pistol used by the KGB and a shoe transmitter used by the KGB and TV super agent Maxwell Smart.
It's safe to say that although the Cold War ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall and the Soviet Union a decade ago, in this city, at least, it lives on. Cold War nostalgia is in.
"There's tremendous interest, truly an unflagging interest, in the Cold War," Gen. Kalugin says.

The Cold War clearly lives on at Au Pied de Cochon, a 24-hour French restaurant in Georgetown that gained notoriety as the place where KGB spy Vitaly Yurchenko literally walked away from his CIA handlers in 1985 and re-defected back to Russia.
"He was a regular customer for about eight to 10 months," says Yves Courbois, the owner of Au Pied de Cochon at the time and now the restaurant's general manager.
"He would always come in and sit at the same table with two or three companions for protection, usually the FBI or CIA. He used to eat lobster or salmon, have a drink, and leave. That night, he came in around 11 o'clock, went to the back door and took off, like he was going to the bathroom. Nobody thought anything about it, we were so used to him being here."
Mr. Courbois says he had no idea who his regular guest was until he read the news reports the next day.
"We paid no attention up until then," he says. "It was a surprise to us."
Au Pied de Cochon is a stop along both spy tours, and a plaque on the wall of the restaurant and a display of newspaper articles commemorate the Yurchenko incident.
"I get Russian tourists who come in, and some people in the spy field, and they'll ask questions," he says. "It's very interesting."
Other stops on the SpyDrive include Chadwick's, the Georgetown restaurant where CIA officer Aldrich Ames gave to the Soviets names of those in the Soviet ranks who were spying for the United States; Dumbarton Oaks, the research library and gardens where Jonathan Pollard, a Naval intelligence analyst and Israeli spy, met with his handlers in the 1980s; and the ordinary blue mailbox at the corner of 37th and R streets, where Ames drew chalk marks to alert his Russian handlers when he had information for them.
The Cold War Museum's Spy Tour also visits Cold War espionage sites such as Au Pied de Cochon and Ames' former house in Arlington, but it adds sites dating to Civil War espionage, such as the Hay-Adams Hotel on 16th Street, where Rose O'Neal Conrad, a Confederate spy and Washington society figure, lived in a building at the same site.
After the bus tour, the Spy Tour takes visitors to the National Cryptologic Museum and the NSA Vigilance Park, part of the National Security Agency complex at Fort Meade, Md.; the Navy Museum at the Washington Navy Yard; and, when it opens in July, the International Spy Museum.

The CI Centre's SpyDrive opened to the public in January 2001, after a couple of years of being offered to FBI trainees and other government personnel who were in the center's teaching and training program. Eventually, Gen. Kalugin says, "someone thought, 'Why not extend the program to the general public and make it a commercial thing?'"
Gen. Kalugin says he was not surprised at the SpyDrive's popularity. The idea of hearing Cold War stories from participants especially participants from both sides has enormous appeal, he says.
The former Soviet officer has much to tell. As a chief of KGB political intelligence he ran several major spy rings out of the Soviet embassy here, including that of John Walker, a retired U.S. Navy warrant officer with top-secret crypto clearance who sold classified material to the Soviets for 18 years and seriously compromised U.S. defenses.
"People have been so interested," Gen. Kalugin says. "It's going to be interesting to anyone interested in real history as it happened, not from a textbook but behind-the-scenes action."
The tours have been so popular that the CI Centre recently added a SpyCruise to its programs, giving participants week-long exposure to the stories and tales told on the SpyDrive. The first SpyCruise went to the Caribbean and Mexico in mid-March, and plans are being made for more cruises.
Carol Bessette, a retired Air Force intelligence officer and Vietnam War veteran who started the Spy Tour in 1995 and runs it as a fund-raiser for the Cold War Museum, says most of her tourists are native Washingtonians who grew up with the stories and arrests of the Walkers, Aldrich Ames, Jonathan Pollard and others in the 1980s, as well as out-of-towners who are making repeat trips to Washington and have already seen the monuments and other traditional sites.
"I get a lot of interesting questions sometimes," she says. "One question recently really had me thinking. One woman asked me about the Pollard case and why do we keep secrets from our friends. It took me a while to come up with an answer that would be understandable for her that we have things in our past we don't discuss with our husband, or maybe we'll tell our older sister but not our younger sister, that kind of thing."
Mrs. Bessette also leads shorter, walking spy tours of Georgetown and the White House area.
Gen. Kalugin says the SpyDrive helps stress that espionage in Washington didn't die with the end of the Cold War, and, indeed, the more recent arrest of FBI Special Agent Robert Hanssen and the war on terrorism has reinforced the need for vigilance in the intelligence community.
"I always repeat that intelligence is a great civic duty," he says. "If you wish to protect our country and you want to use your resources, intellectual and otherwise, this is one of the best areas of human endeavor to do it. I want to encourage the young people who come on these tours to join the intelligence service."

In July, Cold War buffs' options will expand when the International Spy Museum opens on the 800 block of F Street. In addition to its collection of intriguing spy gadgets, such as a poison gas gun and a coat with a buttonhole camera, the museum will display historic photographs, interactive displays and other techniques to describe the art and skills of espionage.
Peter Earnest, the museum's executive director, figures the time, and certainly the place, are right for such a museum.
"We had one in San Francisco, but after two years it just didn't get off the ground," says Mr. Earnest, who has spent most of his 36 years with the CIA in its clandestine service. "But this one seems to have caught hold."
The museum has an impressive advisory board of directors, including William H. Webster, the former FBI and CIA director; former CIA Director Stansfield Turner; former Lt. Gen. Claudia J. Kennedy, the only woman to serve as deputy chief of staff for Intelligence in the Army; and Keith Melton, who owns one of the world's largest collections of espionage devices, weapons and equipment.
The museum will be as apolitical as possible, meaning artifacts and displays from all the world's spy and intelligence organizations will be involved. The KBG and Stasi, the former East German intelligence agency, are well represented.
The Spy Museum, Cold War Museum and CI Centre share plenty of talent and expertise. Gen. Kalugin serves on the board of directors of the Spy Museum, and Mr. Earnest is still a professor at the CI Centre and led SpyDrives for a while.

There may be an addition to the museum's ranks. Francis Gary Powers Jr. is well on his way to opening a permanent location for the Cold War Museum, a traveling exhibit of artifacts from the famous "U-2 incident" to which his late father's name is inextricably linked.
Francis Gary Powers Sr. was the pilot of the high-flying U-2 reconnaissance plane shot down May 1, 1960, over Soviet territory by a SAM-2 missile, just as President Eisenhower was about to leave for a Paris summit meeting with Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev and a visit to Moscow. Khruschev exploded, threatening U.S. U-2 bases around the world, and canceled the president's Moscow trip and walked out on the Paris summit. The incident soured American-Soviet relations for years.
The younger Mr. Powers said he came up with his idea for a Cold War museum about 10 years ago, when he started lecturing to high school students about his father and the Cold War.
"In 1992 I started giving lectures about the U-2 incident, and kids hear 'U-2' and they think I'm talking about the rock band," he says. "And when I tell them about the real U-2 story and my dad, they just look at me like, 'What?' That's when I decided I had to do something about that."
Mr. Powers began turning his dream into reality in 1995, after giving lectures in Norway. That year he incorporated the museum into a charity, and in 2001, the Smithsonian took it on as an affiliate museum.
Mr. Powers hopes to build the museum on 20 acres of land at Lorton and says the Virginia General Assembly authorized $28,000 two months ago to help with architectural plans and a feasibility study.
"We've done an awful lot with very little for the last five years," Mr. Powers says, "but that's starting to change. The president of Romania has pledged support and given us artifacts, and we have some good people on our advisory board."
In an ironic twist, among them are Sergei Krushchev, son of the Soviet premier who oversaw the U-2 shootdown; and Gen. Andrew Goodpaster, President Eisenhower's national security adviser from 1954 (when the U-2 first went into development) to 1961.
"It's a very current museum in light of what's going on in the world right now," Mr. Powers says. "Much of what is going on with Osama bin Laden can be traced to the Afghan war in the 1980s, and that was a Cold War event. Like they say, you have to study history to prepare for the future."

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