- The Washington Times - Wednesday, July 16, 2003

MOUNT KENYA, Kenya — Bongo Woodley at age 19 won a tug of war with a crocodile that had sunk its teeth into his girlfriend’s ankle as they waded across a river.

Both came out fine. In the two decades since, Mr. Woodley has survived charging buffaloes and rhinos, avoided bullets from poachers and has had to hunt down rogue elephants.

As a senior park warden with the Kenya Wildlife Service, none of this seems out of the ordinary. In fact, Mr. Woodley, 41, has to stop and think when asked about his close calls in the Kenyan bush among elephants, lions, rhinos and buffaloes.

Did the poachers who decimated elephant herds in this East African nation in the 1980s and ‘90s ever shoot at him?

“Um, yeah, quite often … basically from the air,” said Mr. Woodley, who used to fly a small plane over Tsavo National Park to search for poachers. “You can hear the bullets breaking the sound barrier as they go past. … None hit mine, always had a look when we landed.”

His father, Bill, spent 44 years working in Kenya’s game reserves after joining the colonial-era Kenya National Parks as a 19-year-old in 1948, shortly after a trip to Mozambique during which he shot 90 elephants for ivory.

Bill Woodley became one of Kenya’s most famous game wardens. In the 1950s, he won Britain’s second-highest military honor, the Military Cross, for infiltrating nighttime meetings of the Mau Mau rebel movement, even though he was white. In the 1980s and ‘90s, he played a leading role in the fight against elephant poaching, before his death in 1995.

“My earliest memory was he was basically the hero. He had such an amazing job, which obviously involved everything that I do now and more,” said the younger Mr. Woodley, whose first name is William but who is known universally by his nickname, Bongo, after a rare forest antelope.

Mr. Woodley, a third-generation white Kenyan — a fading group of some 5,000 people — carried on the tradition. “It’s a great job in many ways, very challenging, but it’s quite exhausting. It will age you prematurely,” he said.

This year, his main problem has been dealing with elephants invading farmland around the foothills of Mount Kenya, destroying crops and sometimes killing people. In recent months, his wardens have had to shoot three elephants.

Mr. Woodley, given his first gun at age 6, considers himself a conservationist who accepts that animals sometimes have to be killed.

“It was the talk of my household: If an animal kills somebody, then the wildlife department will kill the animal,” he said. “That’s one of the ironies of the job. As a park warden, you have to shoot the animals which you are meant to protect. Shooting elephants is always a tragic thing.”

British colonial rulers set up Kenya’s first wildlife agencies in 1946. The Kenya National Parks service was in charge of protected areas, while the Kenya Game Department was responsible for wildlife outside parks.

Thirteen years after Kenya’s 1963 independence, the government merged the two agencies to form the Wildlife Conservation and Management Department, which eventually became burdened by a lack of resources and corruption.

Mr. Woodley joined the department in 1989, shortly after paleontologist Richard Leakey was named its head to clean it up and stamp out the poaching that was destroying Kenya’s elephant herds. Mr. Leakey created the Kenya Wildlife Service in 1990 as a government entity but with greater autonomy.

Mr. Woodley’s first job was helping his father at the Tsavo National Park, where ivory poachers were killing an average of three elephants a day.

The poaching became so bad that the government sent army helicopters to help fight the gangs. Mr. Woodley flew a plane over the park at about 300 feet, looking for the rotting carcasses of elephants and signs of poachers.

In April 1990, Mr. Woodley found his dream job — a move to Mount Kenya.

He has been here ever since, rising through the ranks to senior warden with overall responsibility for protecting wildlife on Africa’s second-highest mountain. Since July 2000, he also has overseen the 850-square-mile forest reserve that surrounds it.

It’s not easy. Illegal logging and increasing human settlement in and around the forest have exacerbated the conflict between man and wildlife. The Wildlife Service, with an annual budget of around $14 million, mainly from park and game reserve entrance fees, doesn’t have enough money.

“I don’t have enough rangers. My vehicles are dilapidated. That age-old story — being expected to perform miracles with negligible resources,” Mr. Woodley said.

The service employs about 4,300 people, half of whom are rangers. It is not nearly enough, considering that the parks cover 8 percent of the country and the agency also must protect wildlife outside the reserves, spokesman Edward Indakwa said. On average, one ranger is responsible for 27 square miles, he said.

Mr. Woodley’s biggest concern is that Kenya may find itself without any free-roaming wildlife, mainly because farmers are snaring animals to sell as “bush meat.”

“I think you will find a situation whereby national parks will have elephants only,” he said. The smaller animals are “going without anybody actually noticing it.”

That would break Mr. Woodley’s heart. He has lived for little else but life in the wilderness, working as a farm manager and safari guide before joining the Wildlife Service.

When he was 23, Kenyan law required that he choose between his Kenyan and his British passports. The choice was simple.

“Having gone to school [in Britain], that gave me the grounding to realize I probably wouldn’t be comfortable living there,” Mr. Woodley said.

Why? He couldn’t find a place there “where you are properly alone.”

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