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Inequality in education
EDUCATIONAL FREEDOM IN URBAN AMERICA: BROWN V. BOARD AFTER HALF A CENTURY
Edited by David Salisbury and Casey Lartigue Jr.
Cato Institute, $24.95, 342 pages
Fifty years ago, the U.S. Supreme Court decided the landmark Brown v. Board of Education case and stopped segregated schools cold. Or did it?
Yes, the court ruled: “Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” But the editors of this volume — David Salisbury is head of educational studies at the Cato Institute, and Casey Lartigue is a research executive at the Fight for Children organization — as well as their contributors (whose papers at a 2003 Cato educational conference are reprinted here) see unintended consequences from Brown v. Board.
They say inequality rages on 50 years later. For instance, 45 percent of black and 47 percent of Hispanic students drop out of public high schools (compared with 24 percent of whites).
Only 5 percent of black and 10 percent of Hispanic fourth-graders reach the math proficiency level set by the National AssessmentofEducational Progress (compared with 33 percent of whites).
Say the editors in the preface: “Minority children living in America’s inner cities suffer disproportionately from a failing education system.” They cite a 2003 report by the National Center for Educational Statistics, which shows that performance gaps between black and white students aged 13 to 17 have widened in the last decade.
Yes, reading this impressive book I see minority students falling behind in our public schools, but white students do little better. I think that Mr. Lartigue puts his finger on the cause, saying that public education, despite many “reforms,” gets ever bureaucratized — treated as a government monopoly, resistant to change.
He quotes Cato’s executive vice president, David Boaz, who analogizes recent Soviet experience: “Perhaps it is time to learn, as the reformers around Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev came to understand, that bureaucratic monopolies don’t work and that reform won’t fix them. We have run our schools the way the Soviet Union and its client states ran their entire economies, and the results have been just as disillusioning.”
How come? Well, there are a lot of reasons. Contributor Chaim Karczag of the National Council on Teacher Quality, for example, notes perverseconsequences stemmingfromstate teacher-certification standards and from the No Child Left Behind Act mandating a “highly qualified teacher” in every classroom.
I suspect that the long arm of the National Education Association — by far the nation’s largest union — and its colleague union, the American Federation of Teachers, had much to do with this mandate and teacher standards. Among such standards: “Teachers are committed to students and their learning”; “Teachers are members of learning communities.”
Genuine professional standards, says Mr. Karczag, “are all but nonexistent.”
Fuzzy standards repel superior teachers. Mr. Karczag quotes Bill Clinton’s education secretary, Richard Riley, as saying, “Too many potential teaches are turned away because of the cumbersome process that requires them to jump through hoops and lots of them.”
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