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Nuclear power is produced when neutrons split the nucleus of uranium atoms, releasing heat that is used to boil water and produce the steam that drives a power plant’s turbines. The process is emissions-free, and the radioactive waste is contained inside the plant.

The waste is stored at individual plants, awaiting permanent transfer to the national Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. But Yucca Mountain has faced stiff opposition and won’t open until the early 2020s at the earliest. By then, it will be too small to hold the waste produced nationally.

Recycling used fuel, which contains 90 percent of its original energy after one use, can reduce waste. “Reprocessing” also produces a plutonium that is nearer to weapons grade, raising fears that widespread reprocessing could increase the risks of nuclear proliferation.

Nuclear energy critics also see the plants as targets of devastating terrorism — “predeployed nuclear weapons,” as Paul Gunter of the anti-nuclear Nuclear Information and Resource Service calls them.

Although opponents fear catastrophe, money may be what kills a nuclear revival. Mr. Peterson estimates that each new plant will cost about $3 billion, but the industry has a history of construction delays and cost overruns.

The 2005 energy bill passed by Congress provides subsidies for the first six plants, which the industry sees as a one-time “jump-start,” Mr. Peterson said.

“If we can’t be competitive after those first few reactors, then companies will stop building them,” he said. “No one is building nuclear plants because they have a religious belief in nuclear.”

The industry hopes new standardized plant designs will help control costs by taking advantage of cheaper, offsite modular construction. Standardization also could allow plants to share parts and work crews, Mr. Peterson said.

He said the new designs are also safer because they incorporate the lessons of Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania, which had a partial meltdown in 1979 after workers misread a valve and mistakenly thought cooling water was getting into the reactor.

The new systems have fewer valves and less piping, relying primarily on gravity to deliver cooling water to the reactor.

Mr. Peterson said the industry has proved it can safely store its waste and will be able to do so until Yucca Mountain is open. Nuclear plants also have elaborate security, including heavily armed guards trained to deal with various attack scenarios, including multiple truck bombings and suicide attacks by wide-bodied airplanes, similar to the September 11 attacks, Mr. Peterson said.

Patrick Moore, a Greenpeace co-founder who has become a fervent nuclear energy advocate and industry consultant, said the industry needs to prepare for such worst-case scenarios, but those shouldn’t drive the debate over nuclear energy.

Mr. Moore said his former environmentalist allies, some of whom now deride him as a corporate shill, are stuck in a Cold War mentality that lumps together the benefits and dangers of nuclear technology.

“You don’t ban the beneficial uses of a technology just because that same technology can be used for evil,” he said. “Otherwise, we would never have harnessed fire.”

Mr. Chameides of Environmental Defense said he thinks nuclear power is safe and that the waste problem has a technical solution, but he needs convincing to endorse a nuclear resurgence. He is waiting to see the industry move aggressively to address concerns about waste and security. He is also skeptical that the nuclear industry can survive without continued subsidies, which he opposes.

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