Continued from page 1

Bob Ayres, a former U.S. intelligence officer who is now an analyst at Chatham House, a London think tank, said the foiled plots should serve as a wake-up call.

“The Europeans have thought this was exclusively a problem between the U.S. and the Islamic world,” he said, adding that the continent is suffering now because of lax immigration policies and a failure to integrate newcomers. “People haven’t realized that the radical Islamists embrace an ideology that transcends national loyalties. They’re not Germans, Brits or French. They are radical Muslims living in these countries.”

Louis Caprioli, of the risk management firm Geos, and former assistant director of the DST, France’s counterterrorism agency, said security officials were taking special note of the Sept. 11 anniversary, but added that anniversaries have so far not been marked by attacks.

“Sept. 11 is in the minds of all terrorists, and all targets,” he said. “(But) the threat is permanent.”