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The eight-term South Side Chicago congressman, who turned back Mr. Obama’s challenge to his seat in the 2000 Democratic primary, did not say how the vacant seat should be filled.

The state would be facing primaries and a new general election for the seat that might not take place until April or May, he said, adding: “We can’t wait that long.”

• S.A. Miller and David R. Sands contributed to this report.