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“It has meant everything to me - I had no history before,” Miss Gold says. “My grandparents, all immigrants, seldom talked about their lives in Eastern Europe or their families.” She also has recorded the stories of her father, her mother-in-law and clients who hire her.

“As the people I’ve interviewed age, these [interviews] become essential records of the vibrancy of their lives,” Miss Gold says. She prefers written formats: “A book can be held, browsed, cherished. A camera can get intrusive, whereas a tape recorder easily gets forgotten.”