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“Additionally, all detainees are provided a Koran in Arabic and/or their native language, along with prayer caps, beads, rugs,” Cmdr. Storum said. “They are also provided a Tafsir [commentary on the Koran]. Prayer is observed five times each day in the camps, led by a detainee-appointed prayer leader in each block. Quiet is maintained in the camps, and movements are restricted to accommodate the observance of call to prayer.”

All detainees have access to the International Committee of the Red Cross, but those who misbehave by abusing guards - a regular occurrence - are not given special privileges and have limited time outside their cells.

Douglas Feith, the Pentagon’s top policy adviser when the camp opened, said day-to-day operations were left to the U.S. Southern Command, but he said he viewed the availability of books, recreational time and instructional classes as a form of rehabilitation.

“These are things that could change people’s thinking,” he said, as well as “encouraging good behavior.”

However, Lawrence Korb, a military analyst at the Center for American Progress and an adviser to the Obama presidential campaign, called it “shortsighted” that no deradicalization program was started at Guantanamo.

“If you look at it long term, this battle against radical extremists isn’t going to be quick,” he said. “They didn’t do any long-range planning. They just opened it up without thinking how long we were going to leave the people there.” If rehabilitation had been attempted, Mr. Korb said, “I don’t think we would have had as many people join back up. I think they should have had a rehabilitation program at Guantanamo from the beginning.”

Max Abrahms, a fellow at Stanford University, has researched extremist groups and finds they conduct violence for generations without ever accomplishing their main political objectives. This indicates their members are absolutely committed to anti-Western violence.

Mr. Abrahms said that when you return a detainee to his home country and he subsequently is released, he likely goes back to the same associates who radicalized him in the first place.

“Many of the communities they come from are, in fact, radical,” he said. “If you return him to his native environment, he will continue to be radical. The social relationships these people have are really formative. If somebody is friends with an al Qaeda member, they are more likely to join al Qaeda.”