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The Pentagon taught many of the army’s troops and officers during decades of annual training exercises to fight in jungles, storm beaches and attack with heavy mechanized and aerial units.

“The military officers fight with conventional methods, while the opposing elements fight outside the rules,” said Gen. Watanachai Chaimuanwong, a national security adviser to a former military regime installed after a 2006 coup.

“What we need here is a new kind of thinking for the situation we are dealing with now,” he said.

Amid the smoke and debris, many residents have complained of the toxic stench.

Others have helped the Reds or passively watched them construct the burning barricades, while dodging bullets and cowering in shop doorways and behind lampposts and telephone booths along the sidewalk.

To extend their reach, the Reds drove a truck equipped with a portable sound system and stage to Klong Toey and roused hundreds of supporters with speeches and songs.

Many people have donated money into the Reds’ cardboard box at the newly created Klong Toey rally site, which features electricity, food, collapsible tables, plastic chairs, medical supplies and other comforts.

Tires also were burning north of the main Ratchaprasong barricades in and around Din Daeng, another blue-collar neighborhood.

A handful of people were fatally shot on Sunday along Rama 4 Road in Bon Kai and Klong Toey, and in Din Daeng and other areas, but the Reds remained defiant.

Nervous troops, many of them fresh draftees, hunkered behind sandbags throughout Bangkok, using binoculars to hunt Reds in the street.

Each sniper, firing an M-16 assault rifle equipped with a telescopic lens, sat perched in a tall building, atop a pedestrian bridge or at ground level, picking off targets.

Troops have kept their distance from the Reds in the streets, preferring to pick them off one by one from afar, instead of confronting them with tear gas, which soldiers used earlier with little effect.

Frustrated Reds have responded with handmade slingshots, shooting marbles and burning firecrackers in an high arc from their barricades to the troops’ sandbagged positions.

Protesters also have set off fireworks, which are usually harmless rockets, and dance in the street to demoralize the soldiers.

The Bangkok Post’s front-page headline on Saturday described the city as a “War Zone.” On Sunday, it said this Southeast Asian capital was teetering on “the Edge of Anarchy.”