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Whether Arizona’s measure would be found constitutional is an open question, scholars say.

Daniel Tokaji, an election law expert at Ohio State University’s law school, said he doesn’t think the bill on its face conflicts with federal law. But he said a court might find its application unconstitutional.

Mr. Seel predicted the proposal would stand up in court because it relies on standards that the Department of Defense uses in making sure military applicants are U.S. citizens.

*Associated Press reporters Carmen Castro and Paul Davenport contributed to this report.