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Fincher, a past guild and Oscar nominee for “The Curious Case of Benjamin Button,” won the directing prize at the Golden Globes for “The Social Network,” which also earned him best-director honors from key critics groups.

Marking its 75th anniversary, the Directors Guild dispensed with its usual honorary and lifetime-achievement awards in favor of a look back at the union’s legacy. Directors such as Steven Spielberg, Clint Eastwood and last year’s feature-film winner Kathryn Bigelow (“The Hurt Locker”) introduced a series of short films centered on King Vidor, John Ford, George Stevens, Frank Capra and other guild pioneers.

The Directors Guild prizes are followed this weekend by Sunday night’s Screen Actors Guild Awards, the last big honors before the Feb. 27 Oscars.