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But Democrats countered that the Washington state jobs could merely be temporary positions, if Boeing’s experiment in South Carolina goes well and it were to move more work there. “The fact of the matter is these jobs are temporary,” Mr. Miller said.

Rep. Tim Walberg, Michigan Republican, said he feared his state, with a sizable union presence, could lose out on work, if businesses are afraid to locate there. He said the NLRB complaint was like throwing a “bucket of ice water” on business investment.

“With the guillotine hanging over South Carolina and Boeing, why would they want to come to my state?” he asked.