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Ms. Warren was grilled by Republicans at a House Oversight and Government Reform TARP and financial services subcommittee hearing on Tuesday at which subcommittee Chairman Patrick T. McHenry, North Carolina Republican, accused her of lying about her role in trying to mediate a global settlement over foreclosure irregularities between banks, regulators and state attorneys general.

Ms. Warren and Mr. McHenry, in an unusual display of congressional spleen, also got into a heated argument over whether she had agreed to testify for more than an hour at the hearing.

The testy exchange only stimulated liberal groups supporting Ms. Warren, with some calling for a retraction of what they said were undocumented and unwarranted charges by Mr. McHenry.

Mr. McHenry, for his part, rued Ms. Warren’s “sense of entitlement.”

“Who is asking Chairman McHenry to rough up Elizabeth Warren?” Mr. Eskow asked, noting that big banks such as Wells Fargo and Bank of America were among Mr. McHenry’s top contributors.

But Republicans see their attempts to hamstring the White House’s powerful new regulator as heroic and aimed at saving the economy from a heavy dose of bureaucratic overreach.

Banks for several years have been extremely cautious in lending to consumers and businesses, mostly because of burgeoning losses on defaulted loans, but also out of concern about an onslaught of heavy new federal regulations. Economists say this is one major reason that economic growth has failed to gather steam.

“Failure to ensure proper checks and balances will always result in regulatory overreach and decisions that miss the mark, which in turn stifle risk-taking, innovation and ultimately jobs,” said Sen. Bob Corker, Tennessee Republican, a key member of the Senate Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Committee who worked with Democrats last year to try to draft a bipartisan banking reform bill.

He noted that last year’s compromise efforts were stymied primarily because of differences about how powerful and independent to make the consumer agency, with Democrats opting to insulate the agency from congressional pressure by putting it within the Fed.

“While we all believe consumer protections need to be strengthened, whether Republicans or Democrats are in charge, no one person should have the power the director of the bureau is currently given,” Mr. Corker said.

Sen. Richard C. Shelby, Alabama Republican and ranking member of the committee, called the changes recommended by Republicans “common-sense checks and balances on this massive new bureaucracy.”

Brian Gardner, Washington analyst at Keefe, Bruyette & Woods, said the Republican tactics could backfire and lead to an open war that carries through to next year’s elections.

“Republicans have made it easier for the White House to pick Warren and engage in a fight,” he said, although they have blocked that possibility for now by preventing any recess appointments.

But Mr. Gardner also thinks Republicans are open to a “grand compromise” where they would agree to Ms. Warren’s appointment in exchange for restructuring the agency.