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Republicans have traditionally faced a celebrity deficit compared with Democrats, and Hollywood watchers say President Obama has managed to make it even harder for liberal celebrities to support the GOP after he reversed his position on gay marriage last spring, saying he now thinks it should be legal.

“It was specifically a PR move geared at Hollywood, and it drew a stark contrast on this issue,” said Ben Shapiro, a conservative political analyst and author of the book “Primetime Propaganda: The True Hollywood Story of How the Left Took Over Your TV.”

Mr. Obama immediately followed up the gay marriage announcement with a trip to California, where he banked $15 million during a star-studded fundraiser at the home of actor George Clooney.

As with abortion for many social conservatives, gay marriage is considered the litmus test for candidates by many in Hollywood, putting Mr. Romney at a severe disadvantage, Mr. Shapiro said.

The former Massachusetts governor has secured a handful of endorsements from celebrities known for supporting Republicans, including TV and movie producer Jerry Bruckheimer, actors Clint Eastwood and Chuck Norris and musician Ted Nugent.

But given Republicans’ continuing opposition to gay marriage — the party platform adopted this week came out against civil unions for gays, let alone same-sex marriage —  some doubt there will be many stars walking around Tampa this week.

“A lot of these folks have been told by their management that it is professionally unwise to make a splash over being pro-Romney,” Mr. Shapiro said.