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Mr. Haniyeh arrived in Iran on Friday for a three-day visit. The visit was seen an attempt by the Palestinian militant movement to avoid snubbing Iran, the group’s longtime patron, even as it cultivates ties with the wealthy Gulf.

Some in Hamas want to be part of the broader Islamist political rise triggered by last year’s Arab Spring uprisings. For this, Hamas needs new friends among Gulf states at odds with Iran.

But others in the movement may wish to maintain the relationship with Tehran, which helped Hamas when it had few friends in the Arab world.