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“Rajoy is committing crimes against the economy and killing it,” Mr. Menendez said. “It’s just cuts and more cuts.”

The new spending cuts, designed to cut 65 billion euros ($80 billion) from state budgets by 2015, include a new wage cut for civil servants and members of parliament and a new wave of closures at state-owned companies.

Marcher Pepi Garcia, a 52-year-old hotel waitress, makes 900 euros ($1,105) per month and has her 35-year-old daughter and 21-year-old son living at home with her. They are unemployed and have never had jobs lasting more than six months.

“I’m not here just to show solidarity,” she said. “We have to protest to stop the madness that is happening in Spain.”

She added: “Rajoy is defending the banks and the rich. He would rather save the bankers than the miners.”

Her grown children “can’t even think about getting their own apartments or starting families” because of the miserable economy.

Alejandro Casal, 28, an Airbus factory worker walking with fellow union members, said of the miners: “This isn’t only their struggle. It’s a struggle for the working class.”

“The people need to be here on the street to say, ‘Enough is enough,” he said.

Mr. Gomez, the retired miner, said he blamed Mr. Rajoy for all of Spain’s ills, including unemployment for two of his four grown children.

“He promised he wouldn’t touch our health care or education or raise taxes. The reality is everything is falling apart. What’s happening here is like a dictatorship. It’s unjust and I am so angry.”

Daniel Woolls contributed to this article.